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    Mormonism.ca - Story Of

In Illinois

A State Of Civil War
After Smith's Death - Rigdon's Last Days
After The War
Attitude Of The Mormons During The Southern Rebellion
Beginning Of Active Hostilities
Blood Atonement
Brigham Young
Brigham Young's Death - His Character
Brigham Young's Despotism
Colonel Kane's Mission
Early Political History
Eastern Visitors To Salt Lake City - Unpunished Murderers
Even More On The History Of Mormonism
Even More On The Religious Puzzle
Facility Of Human Belief
First Announcement Of The Golden Bible
From The Mississippi To The Missouri
From The Rockies To Salt Lake Valley
Fruitless Negotiations With The Jackson County People
Gentile Irruption And Mormon Schism
Gifts Of Tongues And Miracles
Growth Of The Church
History Of Mormonism
How Joseph Smith Became A Money-digger
In Clay Caldwell And Daviess Counties
Introductory Remarks
Last Days At Kirtland
More On Mormonism Social Puzzle
More On The History Of Mormonism
More On The Religious Puzzle
Mormon Treatment Of Federal Officers
Mormonism The Political Puzzle
Nauvoo After The Exodus
Notes On The History Of Mormonism
Organization Of The Church
Preparations For The Long March
Progress Of The Settlement
Public Announcement Of The Doctrine Of Polygamy
Radical Dissensions In The Church - Origin Of The Danites - Tithing
Renewed Trouble For The Mormons - The Burnings
Rivalries Over The Succession
Sidney Rigdon
Smith A Candidate For President Of The United States
Smith's Falling Out With Bennett And Higbee
Smith's First Visits To Missouri Founding The City And The Temple
Smith's Ohio Business Enterprises
Smith's Picture Of Himself As Autocrat
Social Aspects Of Polygamy
Social Conditions In Nauvoo
Some Church-inspired Murders
The Building Up Of The City - Foreign Proselyting
The Camps On The Missouri
The Different Accounts Of The Revelation Of The Bible
The Directions To The Saints About Their Zion
The Evacuation Of Nauvoo - The Last Mormon War
The Everlasting Gospel
The Expulsion From Jackson County The Army Of Zion
The Expulsion Of The Mormons
The Fight Against Polygamy - Statehood
The Final Expulsion From The State
The First Converts At Kirtland
The Following Companies - Last Days On The Missouri
The Foreign Immigration To Utah
The Founding Of Salt Lake City
The Hand-cart Tragedy
The Institution Of Polygamy
The Last Years Of Brigham Young
The Mormon Battalion
The Mormon Bible
The Mormon Purpose
The Mormon War
The Mormonism Of To-day
The Mormons In Politics - Missouri Requisitions For Smith
The Mormons' Beliefs And Doctrines Church Government
The Mountain Meadows Massacre
The Murder Of The Prophet - His Character
The Nauvoo City Government - Temple And Other Buildings
The Peace Commission
The Pioneer Trip Across The Plains
The Political Puzzle
The Political Puzzle Continued
The Reception Of The Mormons
The Reformation
The Religious Puzzle
The Religious Puzzle Notes
The Settlement Of Nauvoo
The Smith Family
The Social And Society Puzzle
The Social Puzzle
The Social Puzzle Notes
The Spaulding Manuscript
The Suppression Of The Expositor
The Territorial Government - Judge Brocchus's Experience
The Witnesses To The Plates
Translation And Publication Of The Bible
Uprising Of The Non-mormons Smith's Arrest
Wild Vagaries Of The Converts


The Story Of The Mormons

A State Of Civil War
After The War
Attitude Of The Mormons During The Southern Rebellion
Beginning Of Active Hostilities
Blood Atonement
Brigham Young's Death - His Character
Brigham Young's Despotism
Colonel Kane's Mission
Early Political History
Eastern Visitors To Salt Lake City - Unpunished Murderers
Facility Of Human Belief
First Announcement Of The Golden Bible
From The Mississippi To The Missouri
From The Rockies To Salt Lake Valley
Fruitless Negotiations With The Jackson County People
Gentile Irruption And Mormon Schism
Gifts Of Tongues And Miracles
Growth Of The Church
How Joseph Smith Became A Money-digger
In Clay Caldwell And Daviess Counties
Last Days At Kirtland
Mormon Treatment Of Federal Officers
Nauvoo After The Exodus
Organization Of The Church
Preparations For The Long March
Progress Of The Settlement
Radical Dissensions In The Church - Origin Of The Danites - Tithing
Sidney Rigdon
Smith's First Visits To Missouri Founding The City And The Temple
Smith's Ohio Business Enterprises
Social Aspects Of Polygamy
Some Church-inspired Murders
The Camps On The Missouri
The Different Accounts Of The Revelation Of The Bible
The Directions To The Saints About Their Zion
The Everlasting Gospel
The Expulsion From Jackson County The Army Of Zion
The Fight Against Polygamy - Statehood
The First Converts At Kirtland
The Following Companies - Last Days On The Missouri
The Foreign Immigration To Utah
The Founding Of Salt Lake City
The Hand-cart Tragedy
The Last Years Of Brigham Young
The Mormon Battalion
The Mormon Bible
The Mormon Purpose
The Mormon War
The Mormonism Of To-day
The Mormons' Beliefs And Doctrines Church Government
The Mountain Meadows Massacre
The Peace Commission
The Pioneer Trip Across The Plains
The Reformation
The Smith Family
The Spaulding Manuscript
The Territorial Government - Judge Brocchus's Experience
The Witnesses To The Plates
Translation And Publication Of The Bible
Wild Vagaries Of The Converts



The Expulsion Of The Mormons








General Hardin announced the coming of his force, which numbered
about four hundred men, in a proclamation addressed "To the
Citizens of Hancock County," dated September 27. He called
attention to the lawless acts of the last two years by both
parties, characterizing the recent burning of houses as "acts
which disgrace your county, and are a stigma to the state, the
nation, and the age." His force would simply see that the laws
were obeyed, without taking part with either side. He forbade the
assembling of any armed force of more than four men while his
troops remained in the county, urged the citizens to attend to
their ordinary business, and directed officers having warrants
for arrests in connection with the recent disturbances to let the
attorney-general decide whether they needed the assistance of
troops.

But the citizens were in no mood for anything like a restoration
of the recent order of things, or for any compromise. The Warsaw
Signal of September 17 had appealed to the non-Mormons of the
neighboring counties to come to the rescue of Hancock, and the
citizens of these counties now began to hold meetings which
adopted resolutions declaring that the Mormons "must go," and
that they would not permit them to settle in any of the counties
interested. The most important of these meetings, held at Quincy,
resulted in the appointment of a committee of seven to visit
Nauvoo, and see what arrangements could be made with the Mormons
regarding their removal from the state. Notwithstanding their
defiant utterances, the Mormon leaders had for some time realized
that their position in Illinois was untenable. That Smith himself
understood this before his death is shown by the following entry
in his diary:--

"Feb. 20, 1844. I instructed the Twelve Apostles to send out a
delegation, and investigate the locations of California and
Oregon, and hunt out a good location where we can remove to after
the Temple is completed, and where we can build a city in a day,
and have a government of our own, get up into the mountains,
where the devil cannot dig us out, and live in a healthy climate
where we can live as old as we have a mind to."*

* Millennial Star, Vol. XX, p. 819.


The Mormon reply to the Quincy committee was given under date of
September 24 in the form of a proclamation signed by President
Brigham Young.* In a long preamble it asserted the desire of the
Mormons "to live in peace with all men, so far as we can, without
sacrificing the right to worship God according to the dictates of
our own consciences"; recited their previous expulsion from their
homes, and the unfriendly view taken of their "views and
principles" by many of the people of Illinois, finally announcing
that they proposed to leave that country in the spring "for some
point so remote that there will not need to be a difficulty with
the people and ourselves." The agreement to depart was, however,
conditioned on the following stipulations: that the citizens
would help them to sell or rent their properties, to get means to
assist the widows, the fatherless, and the destitute to move with
the rest; that "all men will let us alone with their vexatious
lawsuits"; that cash, dry goods, oxen, cattle, horses, wagons,
etc., be given in exchange for Mormon property, the exchanges to
be conducted by a committee of both parties; and that they be
subjected to no more house burnings nor other depredations while
they remained.

* Millennial Star, Vol. VI, p. 187.


The adjourned meeting at Quincy received the report of its
committee on September 26, and voted to accept the proposal of
the Mormons to move in the spring, but stated explicitly, "We do
not intend to bring ourselves under any obligation to purchase
their property, nor to furnish purchasers for the same;. but we
will in no way hinder or obstruct them in their efforts to sell,
and will expect them to dispose of their property and remove at
the time appointed." To manifest their sympathy with the
unoffending poor of Nauvoo, a committee of twenty was appointed
to receive subscriptions for their aid. The resignation of
Sheriff Backenstos was called for, and the judge of that circuit
was advised to hold no court in Hancock County that year.

The outcome of the meetings in the different counties was a
convention which met in Carthage on October 1 and 2, and at which
nine counties (Hancock not included) were represented. This
convention adopted resolutions setting forth the inability of
non-Mormons to secure justice at the hands of juries under Mormon
influence, declaring that the only settlement of the troubles
could be through the removal of the Mormons from the state, and
repudiating "the impudent assertion, so often and so constantly
put forth by the Mormons, that they are persecuted for
righteousness' sake." The counties were advised to form a
military organization, and the Mormons were warned that their
opponents "solemnly pledge ourselves to be ready to act as the
occasion may require."

Meanwhile, the commissioners appointed by Governor Ford had been
in negotiation with the Mormon authorities, and on October 1
they, too, asked the latter to submit their intentions in
writing. This they did the same day. Their reply, signed by
Brigham Young, President, and Willard Richards, Clerk,* referred
the commission to their response to the Quincy committee, and
added that they had begun arrangements to remove from the county
before the recent disturbances, one thousand families, including
the heads of the church, being determined to start in the spring,
without regard to any sacrifice of their property; that the whole
church desired to go with them, and would do so if the necessary
means could be secured by sales of their possessions, but that
they wished it "distinctly understood that, although we may not
find purchasers for our property, we will not sacrifice it or
give it away, or suffer it illegally to be wrested from us." To
this the commissioners on October 3 sent a reply, informing the
Mormons that their proposition seemed to be acquiesced in by the
citizens of all the counties interested, who would permit them to
depart in peace the next spring without further violence. They
closed as follows:--

* Text in Millennial Star, Vol. VI, p. 190.


"After what has been said and written by yourselves, it will be
confidently expected by us and the whole community, that you will
remove from the state with your whole church, in the manner you
have agreed in your statement to us. Should you not do so, we are
satisfied, however much we may deprecate violence and bloodshed,
that violent measures will be resorted to, to compel your
removal, which will result in most disastrous consequences to
yourselves and your opponents, and that the end will be your
expulsion from the state. We think that steps should be taken by
you to make it apparent that you are actually preparing to remove
in the spring.

"By carrying out, in good faith, your proposition to remove, as
submitted to us, we think you should be, and will be, permitted
to depart peaceably next spring for your destination, west of the
Rocky Mountains. For the purpose of maintaining law and order in
this county, the commanding general purposes to leave an armed
force in this county which will be sufficient for that purpose,
and which will remain so long as the governor deems it necessary.
And for the purpose of preventing the use of such force for
vexatious or improper objects, we will recommend the governor of
the state to send some competent legal officer to remain here,
and have the power of deciding what process shall be executed by
said military force.

"We recommend to you to place every possible restraint in your
power over the members of your church, to prevent them from
committing acts of aggression or retaliation on any citizens of
the state, as a contrary course may, and most probably will,
bring about a collision which will subvert all efforts to
maintain the peace in this county; and we propose making a
similar request of your opponents in this and the surrounding
counties.

"With many wishes that you may find that peace and prosperity in
the land of your destination which you desire, we have the honor
to subscribe ourselves,

JOHN J. HARDIN, W. B. WARREN.

S. A. DOUGLAS, J. A. MCDOUGAL."

On the following day these commissioners made official
announcement of the result of their negotiations, "to the
anti-Mormon citizens of Hancock and the surrounding counties."
They expressed their belief in the sincerity of the Mormon
promises; advised that the non-Mormons be satisfied with
obtaining what was practicable, even if some of their demands
could not be granted, beseeching them to be orderly, and at the
same time warning them not to violate the law, which the troops
left in the county by General Hardin would enforce at all
hazards. The report closed as follows:--

"Remember, whatever may be the aggression against you, the
sympathy of the public may be forfeited. It cannot be denied that
the burning of the houses of the Mormons in Hancock County, by
which a large number of women and children have been rendered
homeless and houseless, in the beginning of the winter, was an
act criminal in itself, and disgraceful to its perpetrators. And
it should also be known that it has led many persons to believe
that, even if the Mormons are so bad as they are represented,
they are no worse than those who have burnt their houses. Whether
your cause is just or unjust, the acts of these incendiaries have
thus lost for you something of the sympathy and good-will of your
fellow-citizens; and a resort to, or persistence in, such a
course under existing circumstances will make you forfeit all the
respect and sympathy of the community. We trust and believe, for
this lovely portion of our state, a brighter day is dawning; and
we beseech all parties not to seek to hasten its approach by the
torch of the incendiary, nor to disturb its dawn by the clash of
arms."

The Millennial Star of December 1, 1845, thus introduced this
correspondence:--

THE END OF AMERICAN LIBERTY

"The following official correspondence shows that this government
has given thirty thousand American citizens THE CHOICE OF DEATH
or BANISHMENT beyond the Rocky Mountains. Of these two evils they
have chosen the least. WHAT BOASTED LIBERTY! WHAT an honor to
American character!"





Next: The Evacuation Of Nauvoo - The Last Mormon War

Previous: Renewed Trouble For The Mormons - The Burnings



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